CO2 Emissions

CO2 Emissions - Production

The indicator for production CO2 is carbon intensity or CO2/tonne of concrete produced. Data from the energy use of concrete production and a proportional contribution from constituent materials are converted to carbon emissions using factors published by DEFRA with an adjustment for the process carbon emissions from cement. The resulting value of the indicator is influenced by both CO2 emissions from production and changes in the average proportions of concrete represented by the data collected. These proportions, termed the "Rolling mix" are directly affected by the relative market demand for different types of concrete.

Performance indicator

CO2 emissions - Production (Rolling mix) (kg CO2/tonne)



In 2015 the Rolling Mix value was 80.3 kg/tonne for concrete (21.7% reduction from 1990 baseline) and 90.1 kg CO2/tonne for concrete + reinforcement.


CO2 emissions - Production (Standardised mix) (kg CO2/tonne)




The Standardised or Baseline mix is based on the average proportions of materials in concrete when the strategy was launched in 2008. By using these fixed mix proportions with each year’s carbon values, the industry reports the overral carbon intensity and shows the performance direectly under its control. In 2015 the standardised mix value was 73.8 kg CO2/tonne for concrete (28% reduction from 1990 baseline) and 84.0 kg CO2/tonne for concrete + reinforcement.


The 2020 target is to reduce CO2 emissions by 30% from the 1990 baseline equivalent to a value of 72.2 kg CO2/tonne of concrete produced.


CO2 Emissions - Transport

Performance indicator

CO2 emissions of the total delivery transport through the industry supply chain (kg CO2/tonne)


co2 emissons transport


Within the concrete supply chain, some elements of transport are relatively simple to measure; others are more complex potentially involving multiple modes of delivery, sub-contracted vehicles scheduling return loads to make efficient use of vehicles.


This indicator of kg CO2/tonne is calculated from the conversion of concrete data and proportioned materials delivery (to a construction site) data using DEFRA carbon factors. The value for 2015 was 8.4 kg CO2/tonne.


In 2015 the average delivery distance for all concrete was 46 km (or 28.8 miles). The average delivery distance for all raw materials for concrete was 72 km.



Hanson train

Many quarries have on-site rail terminals enabling direct access to the rail network.


Further information on the CO2 emissions indicator can be found in the full report.


Find out about the joint commitment between MPA and the Rail Freight Group


These indicators are part of the Carbon section of the report and 2020 Strategy Commitments. An update on our Carbon commitments.



For responsibly sourced case studies see This is Concrete