The concrete industry, as well as recycling
its own process waste, is very active in the use of by-products,
secondary materials and material diverted from the waste stream to
reduce its demands on primary raw materials.
Material diverted from the
waste-stream for use as a fuel source, as a percentage of total
The high temperature achieved in cement
kilns enables the safe use of combustible waste materials which can
replace non-renewable fossil fuels. The continued investment by the
cement sector in the replacement of fossil fuels is evident from
the steady increase in the use of waste-derived fuels. The 2012 target was achieved
in 2010 when a quarter of the energy used in the concrete industry
came from material derived from the waste
This indicator can now be assessed against the
challenging target of 50% set for 2020 which recognises that there
is likely to be increasing competition for these alternative fuel
The amount of additional cementitious materials as a
proportion of total cementitious materials
Concrete manufacture uses by-products from other industries.
These materials are used extensively in concrete as an additional
cementitious material to lower the embodied CO2
and reduce demand for primary materials.
Tyre chips are just one of the various
waste-derived fuels used by cement
In 2011 the use of additional cementitious
materials increased compared to 2010. This indicator is on track to
meet the target for 2012.
The use of recycled/secondary aggregates as a proportion
of total aggregates used
In 2011, the use of recycled and secondary
aggregates accounted for 5.3% of the aggregates used in concrete.
The trend observed for this indicator is likely to depend on the
market demands for a specific product mix rather than any specific
programme to increase the recycled content. The manufacture of
precast concrete provides greater opportunities for the use of
recycled aggregates and in this sector the figure is over 20%.
In total, recycled and
secondary materials accounts for 28% of the GB aggregates
market. This is the highest market share in Europe and is over
three times the European average. Most 'hard' construction and
demolition waste currently generated is reprocessed for use in the
aggregates markets and the future supply of these materials will be
dependant on the availability
of suitable demolition material.
Further information on the materials efficiency
indicator can be found in the